Workers construct electric buses
彭博

Transportation 技术 and Innovation

新技术正在重新定义我们的出行方式——但它们都是积极的变化吗?

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新技术正在重新定义我们的出行方式——但它们都是积极的变化吗?

1908年,第一辆可负担得起的大规模生产的汽车从装配线上下线:福特T型车. 它的到来重塑了这个国家的面貌,使汽油动力汽车牢牢地占据了日常生活的中心.

But more than a hundred years have passed, 汽油和柴油的负面影响比以往任何时候都更加明显. 2016年,交通运输成为美国全球变暖污染的主要来源. 它也是癌症、支气管炎、哮喘和其他健康问题的主要原因.

今天, 创新的新技术有望取代汽油,并再次重塑交通系统. Some, like electric cars, are already demonstrating their benefits. 其他s could increase pollution—unless we take steps now.

Electric vehicles

The term “electric vehicle” includes plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, fuel cell technologies—all of which are at least partially powered by electricity. 电力驱动可以用来驱动乘用车、公共汽车,甚至是大型拖拉机拖车.

As an energy source, electricity is cleaner and cheaper than oil, even when the power comes from the dirtiest coal-dominated grid. More than seventy percent 越来越多的人生活在电动汽车比50英里/加仑的汽油车更清洁的地方.

为了一个避免617888九五至尊娱乐变化最坏影响的战斗机会, 美国需要摆脱对石油的依赖,改用大多数汽车的电动化, 卡车, buses by mid-century.

新的流动

最近的一些创新——统称为“新移动性”——可能会从根本上改变人和货物的移动方式,对安全产生深远的影响, 股本, the environment.

Self-driving cars (也被称为“无人驾驶汽车”或“自动驾驶汽车”)至少部分由计算机控制. If deployed thoughtfully, powered by electricity, self-driving cars could improve road safety, increase access, decrease emissions, among other benefits—but it’s a big “if.”

Ride-hailing services 像优步和Lyft为人们提供了一个方便的出行选择, 但目前的使用方式实际上可能会增加拥堵和排放. 增加拼车和向电动汽车过渡可以确保网约车服务将我们推向更好的方向.

这些新技术是否会带来积极或消极的影响将取决于管理其部署的策略.

Fuel efficiency

Also known as “fuel economy,燃油效率是衡量车辆每单位燃料能行驶多远的标准. In the United States, this is expressed as “miles per gallon” (mpg).

Fuel efficient vehicles require less gas to go a given distance. When we burn less gas, we cut global warming emissions and produce less pollution, while spending less on gas—a 那么多.

提高美国汽车的燃油效率是我们减少国家石油消耗所能采取的最重要的一步. 在美国,汽车制造商被要求满足某些车队的要求 fuel economy and pollution standards, though the standards face 攻击 from lobbyists and special interests.

新燃料

50年来, from 1958 to 2007, 石油提供了美国95%以上的运输能源. But since 2008, oil’s share has fallen, 同时,包括乙醇在内的清洁替代燃料的使用也在增长, 生物柴油, more recently 甲烷, (or “biogas”) and electricity.

虽然这些替代燃料通常比汽油和柴油污染少, maximizing their benefits depends on how they are produced. 就像使用可再生能源的电动汽车比使用燃煤电力的汽车更清洁一样, biofuels produced from waste materials, or grown using sustainable farming practices, can maximize climate benefits and minimize negative impacts.

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